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Mark Antony

 Mark Antony Essay Mark Antony Essay

Marcus Antonius, commonly regarded in English as Mark Antony (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N)[note 1] (January 14, 83 BC – August 1, 40 BC), was a Romanpolitician and general. Being a military commander and officer, he was a significant supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar. AfterCaesar's assassination, Antony produced an official politics alliance with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Lepidus, known to historians today while the Second Triumvirate. The triumvirate broke in 33 BC. Difference between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil warfare, the Final Conflict of the Both roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was conquered by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a short land challenge at Alexandria. This individual and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide soon thereafter. His career and defeat happen to be significant in Rome's modification from Republic toEmpire. 2.

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Biography

Early on life

A part of the Antonia clan (gens), Antony was born probably on January 14 of 83 BC.[1] According to Suetonius, this individual shared his birthday with Drusus, the father from the emperor Claudius, who was Antony's son through mother's lineage.[2] Another origin[citation needed] states that his birth coincided with Sulla's landing at Brundisium in the planting season of 83 BC,[3] and Plutarch[4] gives his year of birth as either 86 or 83 BC.[5][not in citation given][6] He was the homonymous and thus presumably the oldest son ofMarcus Antonius Creticus (praetor 74 BC, proconsul 73–71 BC) and grandson with the noted orator Marcus Antonius (consul 99 BC, censor 97–6 BC) who had been killed during the Marian Terror of winter months of 87–6 BC.[7] Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, and according to Cicero, he was only given electricity because he was incapable of using or harming it properly.[8] In 74 BC he was given imperium infinitum to eliminate the pirates of theMediterranean, but this individual died in Crete in 71 BC without producing any significant progress.[7][8][9] Creticus acquired two additional sons:  Gaius (praetor 44 BC, born c. 82 BC) and Lucius (quaestor 55 BC, consul 41 BC, born c. 81 BC).

Antony's brother Lucius, over a coin granted at Ephesus during his consulship in 41 BC Antony's mother,  Julia, was obviously a daughter of Lucius Caesar (consul 90 BC, caton 89 BC). Upon the death of her initial husband, she married Publius Cornelius Lentulus (consul 71 BC), a great eminent patrician.[10] Lentulus, despite taking advantage of his politics success pertaining to financial gain, was constantly in financial trouble due to the extravagance of his lifestyle. He was a major estimate the second Catilinian conspiracy and was extrajudically murdered on the orders of Cicero in 63 BC.[10] Antony lived a dissipate life-style as a children, and attained a status for hefty gambling.[9] According to Cicero, he had a gay relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio.[11] There is small reliable information concerning his personal activity as a young person, although it is famous that having been an associate ofClodius.[12] He may also have already been involved in the Lupercal cult, as he was referred to as a priest of the order later in life.[13] In 54.99 BC, Antony travelled to Athens to study rhetoric and philosophy, getting away his creditors. The next year, he was summoned by Aulus Gabinius,  proconsul of Syria, to take part in the campaigns againstAristobulus II in Judea, as the commander of a Gallic cavalry regiment.[14] Antony achieved essential victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus. In 54 BC, Antony became a staff officer in Caesar's soldires in Gaul and Germany. He once again proved to be a reliable military leader in the Gallic Wars. Antony and Caesar were the very best of friends, as well as staying fairly close relatives. Antony made him self ever open to assist Caesar in carrying out his army campaigns. Increased by Caesar's influence towards the offices of quaestor,  augur, and tribune of the plebeians (50 BC), he backed the cause of his patron with great energy. Caesar's two proconsular...

Recommendations: 2 . ^ Suetonius,  Claudius 11. three or more; see detailed commentary on the phrase by Donna W. Hurley,  Suetonius: Divus Claudius(Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 106.

3. ^ Weigall, Arthur S.  The Life and Times during the Marc Antony. page 39, (1931) Ny: G. G. Putnam and Sons.

seventeen. ^ Plutarch. Land of the Roman Republic. Birmingham: Penguin Timeless classics, 1958.

2. Plutarch 's Parallel Lives: " Antony" ~ Internet Timeless classics Archive (MIT)

2. Plutarch 's Parallel Lives: " Life of Antony" – Loeb Classical Library edition, 1920

5. Babcock, C. L. (1965). " Early career of Fulvia".  American Journal of Philology 86: 1–32.

* Charlesworth, M. P.; Tarn, W. W. (1965).  Octavian, Antony, and Hatshepsut. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

* Eyben, Emiel (1993).  Restless youngsters in old Rome. Mindset Press.  ISBN 0-415-04366-2.

* Gowing, Alain Meters. (1992).  The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio. The state of michigan Monographs in Classical Longevity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

* Huzar, Eleanor G. (1978).  Mark Antony: A Biography. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  ISBN 0-8166-0863-6.

5. Jones, A. M. They would. (1938).  The Herods of Judaea. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

* Lindsay, Jack (1936).  Marc Antony, His Universe and His Contemporaries. London: G. Routledge & Sons.

* Scullard, Howard Hayes (1984).  From the Gracchi to Nero: A brief history of Ancient rome from 133 BC to AD sixty-eight. London: Routledge.  ISBN 0-415-02527-3.

5. Southern, Terry (1998).  Mark Antony. Stroud: Tempus Publishing.  ISBN 0-7524-1406-2.

* Syme, L. (1939).  The Roman Trend. Oxford: Clarendon.

* Weigall, Arthur (1931).  The Existence and Times during the Marc Antony. New York: G. P. Putnam and Kids.

* Suerbaum, Werner (1980). " Merkwürdige Geburtstage".  Chiron (10): 327–355.

2.  This article incorporates text by a syndication now in the public domain name:  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).  Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. ). Cambridge University or college Press.